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如何找資源Libguides: 檢索策略及步驟Research Strategies and Procedures

檢索策略及步驟 Research Strategies and Procedures

  資訊發達能獲取的資訊數量大,所以在查詢資料時要選擇適當、專業的檢索工具來提高資訊的準確性。 

「資訊檢索策略及步驟」提供您查找資料一概略性的指引。


一、 檢索方法

 (一)  使用圖書分類號檢索:

   本館中文圖書分類是採「中國圖書分類法」,西文採「杜威十進位分類法(Dewey Decimal Classification)」。

   如想查詢植物相關主題,以中國圖書分類法為例:可由370分類號〈植物學總論〉去查詢;以杜威十進位分類法為例,以580分類號〈Botanical Science〉去查詢。

   讀者可透過本館資源探索系統(DDS)的檢索欄位鍵入分類號索書號查詢。

 (二)  使用主題檢索: 最常使用關鍵詞(Keyword)檢索。

 (三)  使用學科專門術語: 參考學科專業資料庫、字(辭)典、百科全書或學科基礎專書等工具書,便可找出與主題相關的專門術語或常用語詞。

 (四)  使用主題詞: 用館藏目錄中所提示的主題詞做查詢,並用國家圖書館《中文主題編目規範系統》做更細部之查詢。

 (五)  使用學科專業索引詞彙:如科技索引典、農業科技索引典等。

 (六)  使用資料庫的索引詞彙可使用部分資料庫設的索引詞(thesaurus)或描述詞(descriptor)查詢。

 (七)  查詢指令的運用: 可運用布林邏輯運算「and、or、not」、切截指令、萬用字元,並搭配同義、廣義、狹義、翻譯詞及相關詞,增進檢索之準確性。

 (八)  選用各類型檢索工具或專題資料庫: 如:書目、索引、摘要、字辭典、期刊、學位及會議論文、研究計畫等進行蒐集。


二、資訊檢索策略及技巧

例一:文史資料

 (一)  確定研究主題:以研究中國歷代宦官官職、官署及相關制度為例。可將研究題目訂為:「中國歷代宦官制度史研究」。

 (二)  分析研究主題: 在檢索前,先將研究主題濃縮成二到三個主題概念詞,並列出相關詞彙進行檢索。如中國歷代宦官制度史研究,約可濃縮為「中國」、「宦官」、「制度」等三個主題概念詞。

 (三)  選擇資料庫、參考工具書、資料庫:可利用資料庫、字辭典、百科全書及主題專書等工具找到相關詞彙,擴大資料蒐集範圍。以中國歷代宦官制度史研究為例,可參考:

  •   中國期刊全文資料庫華藝線上圖書館、 博碩士論文資料庫等。
  •   普通或專業字辭典:辭海、歷代官制辭典等。
  •    類書、百科全書:古今圖書集成(宦寺部)、冊府元龜(內官部)。
  •    歷代正史:百官志、職官志、百官公卿表等。
  •    典志史料:十通(記載歷代典章制度)。
  •    歷代會要:各朝代政治經濟制度彙編。

 (四)  檢索詞(關鍵詞):

  •    同義詞:太監、奄(閹)人、宦者。
  •    廣義詞:宮人、椓人。
  •    相關詞:詹事、將行、長信少府、大長秋。
  •    翻譯詞:eunuch、castrated man。

 (五)  檢索策略:將蒐集詞彙搭配布林邏輯檢索指令(and、or、not),可列出檢索策略表。

 (六)  分類法: 對檢索主題之類號及相關類號,進行檢索。以本文為例,宦官分類號為573.515(中國圖書分類法)、中國官制史分類號為573.4。

 (七)  選擇檢索工具:建議選擇與檢索主題相關、收錄資料量較豐富、品質較佳、持續更新的檢索工具。

 (八)  檢討檢索結果:  按檢索狀況,將策略修正,以得到更佳的檢索結果。

  •    結果太少:減少關鍵詞、增加同義詞/廣義詞/相關詞、多用or少用and、修正關鍵詞彙。
  •    結果太多:增加關鍵詞、多用and少用or、not(竹書→not 竹書紀年)、使用精確查詢、修正關鍵詞彙、限制年代或資料類型。

 (九)  如何找到更多資料: 可利用下列資料中的相關資訊,以滾雪球的方法,找到更多的資料。

  •   分類號:以關鍵詞、主題詞檢索歸納主題分類號。
  •   主題詞:由檢索結果、圖書版權頁找出。
  •   書目:圖書、期刊文章的參考書目;領域專家的著作;從參考書目、檢索結果或SSCI找出該領域的權威,再找出其相關著作。
  •   各校相關課程綱要:找到相關重要教科書、參考書目及教授指定用書。

例二:生物產業管理資料

一、  確定研究主題:想知道消費者對食品安全問題的注意會不會影響其購買行為,可以將主題定為­「食品安全知識對消費者購買行為之影響探討

二、 分析研究主題:分為[食品安全知識]、[消費者]、[購買行為]等主題概念

三、 利用參考工具書找出相關檢索詞彙:

1.普通或專業字辭典: 辭海、商業金融辭典、行銷管理辭典。

2.百科全書:中國大百科全書。

四、 找出關鍵詞並建立檢索策略表:

步驟

檢索策略內容

研究題目

食品安全知識對消費者購買行為之影響探討

主題概念詞

關鍵詞A

食品安全知識

關鍵詞B

消費者

關鍵詞C

購買行為

同義詞

廣義詞

相關詞

翻譯詞

關鍵詞A

食品安全、食品知識、產品知識、健康知識、food safety、food knowledge、product knowledge、health knowledge

關鍵詞B

顧客、客戶、購買者、customer、buyer、client

關鍵詞C

消費行為、consumers' behavior、purchasing behavior

檢索策略

關鍵詞A

食品知識 OR產品知識 OR product knowledge

AND

關鍵詞B

顧客OR客戶OR購買者OR customer

AND

關鍵詞C

消費行為OR consumers' behavior OR purchasing behavior

五、  檢索工具:

1.      找圖書:本校館藏查詢系統、本校資源探索系統、國立公共資訊圖書館館藏查詢、全國圖書書目資訊網、REAL睿鷗館藏整合查詢。

2.      找期刊文章:本校館藏查詢系統、本校資源探索系統本校電子資源系統全國期刊聯合目錄臺灣期刊論文索引系統華藝線上圖書館中國期刊全文資料庫SSCI(Social Science Citation Index)ScienceDirect Online(SDOL) 、ESBCO host Academic Search PreimerEBSCO host Professional Develpment CollectionSpringerLinkProQuest ABI Inform Complete 、AGRICOLA農業文獻資料庫 Google學術搜尋等。

3.找學位論文:本校館藏查詢系統、本校資源探索系統本校電子學位論文系統臺灣博碩士論文知識加值系統CETD中文學位論文服務中國博碩士論文全文資料庫-電子技術及信息科學專輯、PQDT (ProQuest Dissertations & Theses)NDLTD國際博碩士論文數位圖書館

六、 相關圖書類群(中文圖書中國圖書分類法西文圖書杜威圖書分類法)

尋找和主題相關之圖書分類號,如中文圖書:430-431農業總論、農業經濟,480商業總論、483畜牧水產品業;飲食相關行業 、490-499 商學總論、商業相關。如西文圖書:580-589 Plants (Botany) ,630-639 Agriculture & related technologies,660-669 Chemical engineering

七、  檢討檢索結果:按檢索狀況,將策略修正,以得到更佳的檢索結果。

   結果太少:減少關鍵詞、增加同義詞/廣義詞/相關詞、多用or少用and、修正關鍵詞彙。

   結果太多:增加關鍵詞、多用and少用or、not、使用精確查詢、修正關鍵詞彙、限制年代或資料類型。

八、  利用已找到研究文章中的參考書目找尋自己遺漏的參考書目。

 

 


如您仍有任何疑問或資訊檢索上的問題,歡迎電22840290轉143、145洽本館1樓參考諮詢台,或問題提問

 

Research Strategies and Procedures

In this age of technology, there is an enormous amount of information that we can find on the internet. That’s why it is best to be prudent when doing research, using only professional resources to ensure that the data found is accurate.

Below is a simple overview of the library’s “Information Retrieval Policies and Procedure” so that users can have a general understanding of how to find research materials.


1. Information Retrieval Basics

(1)  Using Library Classification systems

The library organizes Chinese-language books according to the “New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries”, and Western books according to the “Dewey Decimal Classification”.

If you are looking up plant-related topics, you would search for books in the 370s (Botany) under the “New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries”; if under the ‘Dewey Decimal Classification”, you would search for books in the 580s (Botanical Science).

Library patrons can search for books by their classification numbers using the Nationwide Document Delivery System (DDS).

(2) Searching by topic: Type in keywords to search

(3) Searching with academic terminology: Consult a subject dictionary, encyclopedia, or other reference books on the relevant subject. You could also try common terms or specific terminology in a related field.

(4) Searching with key phrases: Try key phrases provided in the library catalogue, or go to the National Library’s “Standards for Chinese Cataloguing System” for a more advanced search.

(5) Using Subject-specialized Thesauri: Such as a technology thesaurus, agricultural technology thesaurus, etc.

(6) Search using database glossaries: You can use designated terms from a database’s glossary, or specific search terms.

(7) Using query commands: You can use Boolean commands such as “and, or, not” , truncation commands, and wildcard characters together with synonymous terms, broad and narrow search terms, translated words, and related terms to increase the accuracy of search results.

(8) Using various search tools or subject databases: Useful research materials include bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, dictionaries, journals, academic or conference papers, research projects, etc.


2. Information Retrieval Strategies and Skills

Example One: History Research

(1) Identify research topics: If you were studying Chinese eunuch officials, government offices, and related systems, you could set your research topic as “The History of Chinese Eunuch Officials in Government Systems”.

(2) Analyzing your research topic: Before starting your research, condense your topic into two or three concept words and list some related terms. For example, “The History of Chinese Eunuch Officials in Government Systems” could be condensed to the words “China”, “Eunuch”, “Government system”.

(3) Choosing reference books: You can use dictionaries, encyclopedias, or other reference books to find relevant terms in order to broaden your search content. For “The History of Chinese Eunuch Officials in Government Systems”, you can consider:

·         Dictionary:The Cihai, 、歷代官制辭典等。

·         Encyclopedia:古今圖書集成(宦寺部)、冊府元龜(內官部)。

·         Historical Records:百官志、職官志、百官公卿表等。

·         典志史料:十通(記載歷代典章制度)。

·         歷代會要:各朝代政治經濟制度彙編。

(4)  Search termsKeywords):

·         Synonyms:eunuchs、castrated man、宦者。

·         General terms:court members, 椓人。

·         Related terms:詹事、將行、長信少府、大長秋。

  • Translated terms:太監、奄(閹)人。

 (5)  Research strategyCombine your search terms with Boolean query commands(i.e. “and”, “or”, “not”). You could even create a search strategy table

(6)  ClassificationSearch the classification numbers of your research topics. For example, the classification number for eunuch officials is 573.515(The New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries) and number for the history of Chinese bureaucracy is 573.4。

(7)  Choosing resourcesWe recommend that you choose to use resources that are relevant to your research topic, provide an abundant amount of information, are of good quality, and regularly updated.

  • Finding books:the Library Catalogue, the Library Resource System, the National Library Bibliographic Information Network, Research All in One (REAL+), Siku Quanshu, 中國基本古籍庫。
  • Finding journals:the Library’s periodicals section, the Library E-Resource System, the National Periodicals Catalogue, the Taiwan Periodicals Index, the Chinese Electronic Periodicals System (CEPS), etc.
  • Finding scholarly articles: the Library Catalogue, the Library Electronic Thesis System, the National Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations in Taiwan, the Chinese Electronic Theses and Dissertations (CETD) site, etc.

(8)  Reviewing search results  Adjust your search methods accordingly to get better results

  • Too few results:Use less keywords and use more synonyms, related terms, or broader terms; use”or” more and “and” less
  • Too many results:Use more keywords; use “and” more, and “or” and “not” less; use exact terms, narrow down scope of dates and types of search result materials。

(9)  To find more data Try using the information you’ve already gathered to do further research.

  • Classification number:Organize key words and terms by classification numbers
  • Keywords:Find new ones in search results or book indexes
  • Bibliography:Consult the bibliographies of books and journal articles to find works by experts in relevant fields. You could also find related materials from bibliographies, search results, or the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI).
  • Syllabi:Use course syllabi to find textbooks, course reserve materials.

Example Two: Bio-Industry Management Research

ONE. Identify a Research Topic: If you want to know whether or not consumers’ attention to food safety issues affects their buying behavior, a possible research topic would be “Exploring the Impact of Food Safety Knowledge on Consumer Buying Behavior”.

TWO. Break Down the Research Topic: “Exploring the Impact of Food Safety Knowledge on Consumer Buying Behavior” can be broken down into sub-topics such as “food safety information”, “consumers”, and “consumer buying behavior”.

THREE. Using Reference Books to Find Relevant Search Terms:

1. General or Subject Dictionaries: Cihai Chinese DictionaryBusiness & Finance DictionaryGlossary of Marketing and Management Terms

2. Encyclopedias: The Encyclopedia of China

FOUR. Create a Research Strategy Chart with Search Terms:

Procedure

Research Strategy Content

Research Topic

Exploring the Impact of Food Safety Knowledge on Consumer Buying Behavior

Sub-Topic Terms

Term A

Food safety information

Term B

Consumer(s)

Term C

Consumer buying behavior

Synonyms、

Broad Terms、

Similar Terms、

        Translated Terms

Examples:

Food safety, food knowledge, product knowledge, health knowledge

Examples:

Customer, buyer, client

Examples:

Consumers' behavior, purchasing behavior

Examples:

產品知識 , 顧客, 消費行為

Search strategies

Search:

Food knowledge OR product knowledge OR產品知識

AND

 

customer OR client OR consumer OR顧客

AND

 

purchasing behavior OR consumers' behavior OR消費行為

FIVE. Choosing Resources:

1. Finding Books: You can search the NCHU Library WebPAC, NCHU Discovery & Delivery System, the National Library of Public Information catalogue, the National Library Bibliographic Information Network, Research All in One (REAL+), etc.

2. Finding Journal Articles: You can search the NCHU Library WebPACNCHU Discovery & Delivery System, NCHU WebPAC – E-Resources, the Nationwide Document Delivery Service, Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature System, Airiti LibraryChina Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, SSCI (Social Science Citation Index), Science Direct Online (SDOL), EBSCOhost Acadademic Search Premier, EBSCOhost Professional Development Collection, SpringerLink, ProQuest ABI Inform Complete, AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, etc.

3. Finding Theses and Dissertations: You can search the NCHU Library WebPACNCHU Discovery & Delivery System, NCHU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Service, Taiwan Masters’ Dissertations System, CETD (Chinese Electronic Theses and Dissertations Service), China Masters’ Theses Full-Text Database – Electronic Technology and Information Science, PQDT (ProQuest Dissertations & Theses), NDLTD (Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations), etc.

SIX. Using Books in Related Subjects (Chinese books – New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries; Western Books – Dewey Decimal System):

You can search for books in related subjects using classification numbers. For example, with Chinese books: 430 – 431 General Agriculture, Agricultural Economics, 480 Commerce: various businesses, 483 Aquatic Livestock Industry, Food Industry, 490 – 499 Commerce: administration and management. With Western books: 580-589 Plants (Botany), 630-639 Agriculture & related technologies, 660-669 Chemical engineering.

SEVEN. Reviewing search results  Adjust your search methods accordingly to get better results

Too few results:Use less keywords and use more synonyms, related terms, or broader terms; use “or” more and “and” less

Too many results:Use more keywords; use “and” more, and “or” and “not” less; use exact terms, narrow down scope of dates and types of search result materials。

EIGHT. Use the Bibliographies of Found Articles to Find More Research Materials

 


If you have any questions regarding information retrieval, please call 22840290 ext.143,145, visit the Reference Desk on the Library 1st floor, or go to the Library Reader Advice System.

 

檢索策略實例

下列研究所畢業論文檢索策略實例提供您參考